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STBM (Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat)

Hal utama dalam STBM adalah perubahan perilaku masyarakat, bukan sekedar berapa banyak jamban yang dibangun secara swadaya oleh masyarakat, tapi perubahan perilaku dari masyarakat yang ebnar-benar menyadari bahwa jamban / wc tidak kalah pentingnya dengan makanan dan minuman.
Brosur ini berisi informasi mengenai STBM (Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat), meliputi kondisi dan prinsip STBM, serta ilustrasi keadaan sanitasi di wilayah Kabupaten Manokwari.

WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 1: Cleaning and Disinfecting Wells

Pengarang : Sam Godfrey & Bob Reed

Severe flooding, earthquakes, civil disturbances and other natural and man-made disasters often cause damage to hand-dug wells. Surface structures are broken and the well becomes contamined by silt, chemicals or debris.
This techical note sets out the actions needed to repair and rehabilitate a hand-dug well so that it can be returned to its former condition.


Steps for cleaning and disinfection

Step 1: Inventory of existing wells

Step 2: Rehabilitation and cleaning of wells

Step 3: Disinfection of the well

Step 4: Dewater the well

WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 2: Cleaning and Disinfecting Boreholes

Pengarang : Sam Godfrey & Bob Reed

 Boreholes are resistant to many forms of natural and man made disasters. Although the components above ground may be damaged, the narrow opening at the top of the borehole often prevents contamination of the water supply or damage to the pump components below ground. The main exception to this is damage caused by earthquakes, which can be greater below ground than the damage seen on the surface.
This techical note sets out the actions required to repair and rehabilitate a borehole after any disaster.


Driven and drilled boreholes

Step 1: Assess the damage

Step 2: Repair the handpump and borehole

Step 3: Disinfection and re-commision of the borehole and handpump


WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 4: Rehabilitating small-scale piped water distribution systems

Pengarang : Sam Kayaga & Bob Reed

The damage caused to pipe networks by natural disasters can be widespread and extensive. It can range from minor breaks to complete loss of whole sections of the system. A full systematic survey of the entire network is the only way of identifying the true extent of the damage. This may not be possible in an emergency where it is a priority to re-instate a basic level of supply.
This techical notes examines these priorities and the process of rehabilitating small-scale piped water distribution systems.


Steps of rehabilitation

Step 1: Assess the extent of the damage

Step 2: Keep consumers informed

Step 3: Provide an alternative water supply

Step 4: Isolate damaged sections of the network

WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 5: Emergency treatment of drinking water at the point of use

Pengarang : Sam Kagaya & Bob Reed

Normally, drinking water supplies need to be treated during and after an emergency to make them safe and acceptable to the user. Treatment at the point of use is generally quicker and less expensive to implement than a centralized system, but it can be more difficult to manage. Only water used for drinking and preparing food needs to be treated. Nevertheless, this still amounts to about 5 litres per person per day.
This technical notes describes some of the most common and simple treatment options suitable for use during an emergency.


Storage and settlement
Sand Filters
Ceramic Filters

Chemical Disinfection
Solar Disinfection (SODIS)
Combined treatment systems

Looking after clean water
Water Storage
Hygiene Promotion

WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 10: Hygiene promotion in emergencies

Pengarang : Frank Odhiambo & Bob Reed

Communities affected by a disaster often lack basic water and sanitation facilities. They are also likely to be traumatized and vulnerable to disease. The disturbance to familiar and safe practices or the relocation to new environments can result in hygiene behaviour becoming unsafe. All these factors can contribute to the high risk of disease and epidemics.
This techical notes explains why hygiene promotion is important in emergencies and describes how to carry it out.


Preventing the spread of disease

Minimum standards

How to wash hands thoroughly

Principles of hygiene promotion

Planning hygiene promotion


Promotion tools and communication methods

Other practical actions

WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 3: Cleaning and Disinfecting Water Storage Tanks and Tankers

Pengarang : Sam Godfrey & Bob Reed

During and shortly after an emergency, it is often necessary to quickly provide a basic water supply for the affected population. This may be because the normal systems of supply have been damaged or destroyed. The most common, immediate solution is to hire vehicles and tanks that have been used for other purposes or to retrieve collapsible tanks from an emergency store. In either case, they must be cleaned and disinfected before being used.
This techical note outlines a four-step approach to cleaning and disinfecting water tanks and tankers.


Steps for rehabilition

Step 1: Select the tanks to use

Step 2: Cleaning

Step 3: Disinfection

Step 4: Safely dispose of waste liquids

WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 6: Rehabilitating water treatment works after an emergency

Pengarang : Brian Reed & Bob Reed

In urban areas, the population may be entirely reliant on the public water supply system for their drinking water. Modern water treatment works rely on the inputs of skilled operators as well as supplies of chemicals, electricity and machinery. A disaster can cause extensive damage to the works leading to a reduced or even a total loss of output.
This techical notes identifies the first steps to take towards rehabilitating a water treatment works after an emergency.


Steps of rehabilitation

Assess the situation

Deciding what to do first

Pumps and power

Works operation

Public information


WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 8: Disposal of dead bodies in emergency conditions

Pengarang : Julie Fisher & Bob Reed

Dealing with the dead is one of the most difficult aspects of a disaster response. This is not usually due to health-related risks, which are likely to be negligible, but to the social and political impact of the trauma.
This techical notes outlines the health implications of dealing with mass fatalities and priority actions that need to be considered when planning for the collection and disposal of the dead.


Health risks from mass fatalities

Priority tasks

Dealing with medical emergencies

Missing persons

WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 9: How much water is needed in emergencies

Pengarang : Brian Reed & Bob Reed

Water is essential for life, health and human dignity. In extreme situations, there may not be sufficient water available to meet basic needs and in these cases, supplying a level of safe drinking water for survival is of critical importance. Insufficient water and the consumption of contaminated water are usually the first and main causes of ill health to affect displaced populations during and after a disaster.
This techical notes considers the minimum quantities of water that are required for survival in emergencies.


Factors affecting water requirements

The Sphere Standards

How much water does an individual use

Priorities for water

Water sources and quality

Sanitation and water requirement


Water for non-domestic use

Step-by-step improvements

Calculating water demand

Ensuring supply has an impact

WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 7: Solid waste management in emergencies

Pengarang : Jonathan Rouse & Bob Reed

The safe disposal of solid waste is critical for public health during an emergency. Not only will existing collection and disposal systems be disrupted, but there will be extra waste caused by the emergency itself. Initially, for new sites such as refugee camps, there will be no arrangements in place at all. If solid waste is not dealt with quickly, serious health risks will develop which will further demoralize the community already traumatized by the emergency.
This techical notes highlights the key issues to consider in managing solid waste during and shortly after a disaster.


What is solid waste

The objective of managing solid waste


Disposal of waste caused by a disaster

Domestic waste

Other important factors

WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 13: Planning for excreta disposal in emergencies

Pengarang : Bob Reed

The pressure to help people immediately after a disaster often leads to actions starting before they have been properly planned. Wide experience has shown taht this wastes resources and results in poor service delivery and few long term benefits for the affected community. This is teh case for emergency disposal of excreta as it is for any other emergency intervention.
This techical notes is a guide to teh planning process of excreta disposal during the two phases of an emergency. Technical options are presented in technical note no.14.


Stages in an emergency

Stages in planning

Rapid assessment

Community participation

Should you get involved

SPHERE Guidelines

Outline Design

Immediate action

Detailed design


WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 14: Technical Options for excreta disposal in emergencies

Pengarang : Bob Reed

Sanitation is the efficient disposal of excreta, urine, refuse, and sullage. Initially, indiscriminate defecation is usually the main health hazard in refugee camps.
This techical notes outlines ways in which excreta and urine can be managed during the early stages of an emergency, while long-term solutions are devised. (See Technical Note 7 for guidance on managing solid waste) The technical options for emergency excreta disposal are limited and simple. If they are to work, however, they must be properly managed and be understood and supported by the community.


Immediate measures

Managing open defecation

Shallow family latrines

Shallow trench latrines

Deep trench latrines

Making use of existing facilities

Mobile latrine blocks

Borehole latrines

Packet and plastic bags

Chemical toilets

Overhung latrines

Raised latrines

Long-term solutions

WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 15: Cleaning wells after seawater flooding

Pengarang : Karen Vilholth, IWMI (International Water Management Institute)

Many people living in coastal regions rely on shallow groundwater for their water supply. Seawater flooding after a severe storm or tsunami can damage wells and contaminate the groundwater.
This techical notes provides advice for rehabilitating wells in such circumstances. It should used in conjunction with Technical Note 1 which provides general information about rehabilitating wells after a disaster.


Rehabilitation and cleaning of wells

Step 1: Removing debris and excess salinity

Step 2: Natural cleaning

Step 3: Disinfect the well


WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 11: Measuring chlorine levels in water supplies

Pengarang : Bob Reed

As the quality of water can be seriously affected by a disaster or an emergency, it is best practice to disinfect all emergency water supplies. The most common way of doing this is with chlorine.
This techical notes explains why disinfection is important, why chlorine is used, how it works, how to test for its presence and where and when to test.


Why should emergency water supplies be disinfected

What is disinfection

How does chlorine work

Chlorine residual

Testing for chlorine residual

When and where to test water

WHO Technical Note for Emergencies 12: Delivering safe water by tanker

Pengarang : Bob Reed

Water tankering (also known as water trucking) can be a rapid means of transporting water to areas in need during the initial phase of an emergency. However, tankering operations are expensive and time-consuming to administer.
This techical notes considers key issues relating to the efficient and effcetive use of tankers during an emergency.


Types of tanker


Tanker management


Other considerations

SanMap I Sanitation Mapping: Sanmap sebuah pendekatan rencana strategi infrastruktur sanitasi berkelanjutan

Pengarang : BORDA

Pemetaan Sanitasi (SanMap) merupakan sebuah pendekatan pengumpulan data yang berhubungan dengan isu sanitasi sebagai informasi yang terintegrasi untuk masing-masing departemen yang berfungsi sebagai pelayanan publik di tingkat kotamadya atau kabupaten sebagai alat untuk perencanaan strategis untuk tujnuan jangka menengah maupun jangka panjang.
Leaflet ini berisi penjelasan mengenai SanMap  yang diperkenalkan oleh LSM Internasional, Borda, meliputi latar belakang, prinsip, serta metodologi dari SanMap.

Daur Ulang dan Kompos: Pusat Daur Ulang dan Kompos Cakung Cilincing

Salah satu dari banyak cara untuk solusi pengelolaan sampah yang ramah lingkungan adalah Daur Ulang. Selain dapat mengurangi permasalahan penggunaan Tempat Pembuangan Akhir (TPA) secara signifikan, daur ulang juga dapat membuat sampah menjadi potensi sumber daya yang dapat dimanfaatkan sehingga mempunyai nilai tambah, nilai ekonomi, dan nilai ekologi.
Hasil dari daur ulang sampah organik yang menjadi kompos, sangat bermanfaat bagi pertumbuhan dan produktifitas tanaman, baik tanaman semusim maupun tanaman keras tahunan.
Leaflet ini berisi penjelasan mengenai kemitraan antara PT. Wira Gulfindo Sarana  dan Dinas Kebersihan Provinsi DKI Jakarta dalam membangun fasilitas pemilahan dan pembuatan kompos yang ramah lingkungan dengan teknologi mutakhir, yang berbentuk Pusat Daur Ulang dan Kompos, yang merupakan realisasi dari keinginan dalam memberikan sumbangsih tebaik bagi lingkungan hidup di Indonesia.

UPTD Komposting

Keberadaan UPTD Komposting Dinas Kebersihan dan Lingkungan Hidup Kota Probolinggo merupakan wujud komitmen Pemerintah Kota Probolinggo untuk mewujudkan pembangunan lingkungan yang berkelanjutan.
Leaflet ini berisi profil dan penjelasan singkat mengenai UPTD Komposting Dinas Kebersihan dan Lingkungan Hidup Kota Probolinggo, meliputi latar belakang, visi, misi, nilai dasar, program kegiatan, diagram alir pembuatan kompos dengan aktivator EM 4, program tindak lanjut serta pengurus dan struktur organisasi dari UPTD Probolinggo.

Jasa Tirta: One River, One Plan, One Integrated Management (Jasa Tirta I Public Corporation)

Leaflet ini berisi mengenai company profile dari Jasa Tirta I, meliputi: working area of Jasa Tirta Public Corporation, Jasa Tirta I Public Corporation, The River Basin Management Agency, River Basin, Development of Water Resources, Management of Water Resources, Scope of Business & alamat kantor pusat & cabang Jasa Tirta I.


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